Narrative review: Biological mechanisms between periodontal diseases and pregnancy
Report by Dr Mervi Gürsoy and Prof Filippo Graziani
- Chronic periodontitis is a potential risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes.
- Biological mechanisms involving periodontal inflammation may play an important role in pregnancy complications.
- Clinical studies suggest that bacteria from the mouth colonise the foetus and the placenta, with blood as the most likely vehicle of transmission.
- Specific micro-organisms associated with periodontitis have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, but little is known about their exact role.
- It is not known why some women with periodontal inflammation develop adverse pregnancy outcomes and others do not.
- Further studies are needed to understand the complex biological processes involved.