Meta-analysis: Biological mechanisms between periodontal diseases and pregnancy
Report by Dr Morena Petrini, Dr Mervi Gürsoy, Dr Stefano Gennai and Prof Filippo Graziani
- There is still no clear evidence to support the association between maternal periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes.
- Contradictory findings have been reported and the available literature is too heterogenous to be able to draw solid and definitive conclusions.
- Studies of adverse pregnancy outcomes and periodontitis indicate that there might be some association. But the strength of this association is extremely limited – for all the research papers that indicate association, an equal number of studies do not.
- As pregnancy outcomes may be correlated with intra-uterine infections and increased local and systemic inflammatory markers, a double relationship with periodontitis has been hypothesised.
- Periodontitis is a chronic inflammation and is thus a potential source of circulating inflammatory biomarkers that might be related to possible adverse pregnancy outcomes.
- Further co-ordinated research is very much needed.