Women's oral health during pregnancy
Report by Prof Mariano Sanz and Dr Elena Figuero
- The mouth is one of the main areas involved in the physiological and hormonal changes that take place during pregnancy.
- Pregnant women can be affected by pregnancy gingivitis, granuloma gravidarium (pregnancy tumour), and periodontitis.
- Gingival inflammation tends to increase during pregnancy – even when proper oral-hygiene to remove plaque is performed – but pregnancy gingivitis does not usually imply irreversible damage to the periodontium (the bone, connective tissue, and gum surrounding and supporting a tooth).
- Granuloma gravidarium lesions that do not cause significant functional or aesthetic problems should not be removed during pregnancy – they may recur or they may resolve spontaneously after delivery.
- No specific type of periodontitis is related to pregnancy, but periodontitis is a potential risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and gestational diabetes mellitus.